Methods of validating a test instrument

On the other hand, questionnaire validity can be established with the use of another survey in the form of a field test and this examines how well a given measure relates to one or more external criterion, based on empirical constructs as shown in [Figure 2].These forms could be criterion-related validity According to the authors who put the 2 as separate entities, predictive validity and concurrence validity are subtypes of criterion-related validity while convergence validity, discriminant validity, known-group validity and factorial validity are sub-types of construct validity [Figure 2].Several varieties have been described, including face validity, construct validity, content validity and criterion validity (which could be concurrent and predictive validity).These validity tests are categorised into two broad components namely; internal and external validities. It is the mostly used data collection instrument in health and social science research.From the author's personal observation among researchers in developing countries, most students and young researchers are not able to distinguish validity from reliability.Likewise, they do not have the prerequisite to understand the principles that underline validity and reliability testing of a research measurement tool.

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This form of validity exploits how well the idea of a theoretical construct is represented in an operational measure (questionnaire).Specifically, raters will review all of the questionnaire items for readability, clarity and comprehensiveness and come to some level of agreement as to which items should be included in the final questionnaire.proposed a S-CVI of ≥0.78 as significant level for inclusion of an item into the study.Face validity is established when an individual (and or researcher) who is an expert on the research subject reviewing the questionnaire (instrument) concludes that it measures the characteristic or trait of interest.This means that they are evaluating whether each of the measuring items matches any given conceptual domain of the concept.

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